by Ronald & Candace Pezzuti




Symptoms: Black Spot appears when chicks hatch. The Black Spot will appear on the Chick’s anatomical right side.  It can vary in size.


The paragraph below, states what most breeders have come to believe as the cause and effect of Black Spot.



“Circovirus infections are commonly associated with

immunodeciency-related diseases that are potentially fatal. A

condition known as ` black spot ' of neonatal canaries, characterized

by abdominal enlargement, gall bladder congestion and

failure to thrive, has been described for many years in Europe

and was reported to have been caused by a circovirus

(Goldsmith, 1995). “


I do not believe Black Spot is caused by a virus. My finding are founded on the test results from this year’s breeding season. Here are some of my finding and observations.


1– Not all birds in my aviary had chicks born with Black Spot.

     (8 nests out of 85 cages set up.)

2– Not all the chicks in a clutch had Black Spot.

3– Treatment with antibiotic and high level of protein improved after 3-4 

     Days the health of the chick and the Black Spot disappeared.

4– Chicks developed at a normal rate as the ones not affected and had no

     further sign of illness.




I believe Black Spot to be a bacterial infection passed from the hen to the

Embryo during development.  Note: each egg develops independently which might explain why only two chicks out of five in the same nest will have Black Spot.


A bacterial infection is treatable with antibiotics. On the other hand,

Viruses as you know are not treatable with antibiotics. A virus would

affect all the birds in your Aviary.


The hen or cock can’t be passing the infection from the gut because they continued to feed and the chicks got better.  I, suspect pulling the eggs might be the mode of transmission from our hands or where we store the eggs.




I used this method and had 99% success rate based on the fact that I only lost one chick to Black Spot during breeding season.


This was the first time I had this problem in my aviary and with God’s help gave me the answers I was looking for. Here is what I did.


Kaytee Hand Feeding Formula ….. One Scoop Full = (4 Tablespoons)

Mixed with Distilled Water* to the appropriate consistency.


Heat formula before ** adding any other ingredient.

Then Add: 1 teaspoon of Liquid Cod Liver oil

                  1 teaspoon of Guardian Angel Vitamin/Mineral Supplement

                  1 capsule of Amoxicillin 250 mg

Note:  I fed my chicks 5 times per day so the concentration of

            medication should be noted if you feed less per day.       


*Always use Distilled Water when administrating medication.

  Organic material in tap water reduces the effectiveness of   



 **Heating destroys vitamins/minerals and antibiotics.


* (always use distilled water when administrating medication)